R.W. White was a psychoanalytically-oriented psychiatrist and research hypnotist. He saw in hypnosis a “transference of the loving, hating and fearing attitudes which were first aroused by the parents” to the operator. (“An Analysis of Motivation in Hypnosis, “ p. 154) Kubie and Margolin were also Freudian-oriented research hypnotists. They said that hypnosis is essentially the displacement of the conscious mind’s (ego) control by
…a complex image of the hypnotist which becomes part of the subject. This image functions in the subject as does the residue of parental images in adults. It delimits memories and contacts, dictates purposes, distributes inner rewards and inner punishments, and engenders strong affects. In some measure, therefore, it temporarily dispossesses the earlier authorities (i.e., the superego), or merges with them…The incorporated image of the hypnotist plays the same role in the hypnotic subject as does the incorporated and unconscious image of the parental figure in the child or adult. Hypnosis thus is seen to be an experimental reproduction of a natural developmental process. (Kubie and Margolin, “The Process of Hypnotism and the Nature of the Hypnotic State”)
A hypnotic subject accepts the hypnotist as an unconscious displacement for his or her own ego the way a child unconsciously incorporates parental points of view.
In the induction stage the hypnotist becomes for a time the sole representative of the external world and, once hypnosis has been achieved, while the subject reinstates his normal boundaries in both time and place, the hypnotist remains incorporated within his conscience as “an experimentally induced super- ego figure. (Ibid.)