In secular circles, indoctrination and brainwashing are used almost interchangeably. It’s not all that hard to understand why. Instructing young, vulnerable children to pledge their blind allegiance to certain authority figures can, especially for the most cynical among us, evoke rather disturbing images. (Karl in A Clockwork Orange, anyone?) And because hell is so often dangled as a punishment for disbelief, religious indoctrination possesses a fear factor that seems, well, kind of mean.
But, for all the sometimes-unpleasant underpinnings of indoctrination, there is a significant difference between what happens to children in CCD and what happened to Karl in Room 23. In short, indoctrination is not brainwashing. And I think that’s worth talking about — because parents who blow indoctrination out of proportion will hinder their kids’ ability to understand the difference between most religions and harmful cults. And I think that’s important — really important — especially if they don’t want to, ahem, indoctrinate their kids.
So here’s the deal: The Oxford English Dictionary defines brainwashing as pressuring someone to adopt radically different beliefs by using systematic and forcible means. It often implies mind control, and other unethically manipulative methods of persuasion. Some religious sects and many cults are famous for employing classic brainwashing techniques. In his book Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood and the Prison of Belief, author Lawrence Wright touches on a number of them. He writes of policies that prohibit church members from reading articles, essays or blogs that criticize Scientology, and he describes incidents of violence, threats and systematic punishments employed by church leaders to keep members from speaking — or even thinking — ill of Scientology themselves.
Robert Jay Lifton, an American psychiatrist, has devoted his life to the study of mind control. His books include The Nazi Doctors, Cults in Our Midst and Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism. In the latter, Lifton lays out “Eight Criteria for Thought Reform.” They are:
- Milieu Control — The control of information and communication, resulting in extreme isolation from the outside world.
- Mystical Manipulation — Experiences that appears spontaneous but are actually planned and orchestrated to demonstrate divine authority, spiritual advancement, or other insight.
- Demand for Purity — The requirement to conform to the ideology of the group and strive for perfection. Guilt and shame are often employed.
- Confession — Ways to monitor the personal thoughts (“sins”) of individual members — which are then discussed and exploited by group leaders.
- Sacred Science — The idea that the group’s ideology is beyond questioning or dispute.
- Loading the Language — The use of jargon and terminology that the outside world does not understand as a means of gaining thought-control and conformity.
- Doctrine over Person — Subordinating all personal experiences to the ideology of the group.
- Dispensing of Existence — In order to be saved or enlightened, individuals must convert to the group’s ideology. If they are critical of the group, or decide to leave the group, they are rejected by all members.
It’s clear that, under Lifton’s criteria, few religious parents are actually brainwashing their children. They may be employing one or two of these methods — I know quite a few Catholics very familiar with No. 3, for instance, and a few Mormons familiar with No. 8, and, Oh My God, can we talk about the broad employment of No. 5?— but not more than a few, and certainly not all.
I’m not saying indoctrination is a good thing. To be honest, any degree of intentional indoctrination makes me twitchy, whether it’s associated with religion or with atheism. But, after viewing Lifton’s list, it’s clear that what most parents are doing — on both sides of the aisle — falls far outside the bounds of brainwashing. And that, at least, is a relief.
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