LINDA C J TURNER Q & A with #LindaCJTurner

ADHD: Private clinics

The investigation found that: 

  • Clinics carried out only limited mental health assessments of patients
  • Powerful drugs were prescribed for long-term use, without advice on possible serious side effects or proper consideration of patients’ medical history
  • Patients posting negative reviews were threatened with legal action
  • The NHS is paying for thousands of patients to go to private clinics for assessments

Commenting on Panorama’s findings, Dr Mike Smith – an NHS consultant psychiatrist – said he was seriously concerned about the number of people who might “potentially have received an incorrect diagnosis and been started on medications inappropriately”.

“The scale is massive.”

WATCH: BBC reporter’s ADHD diagnosis with Harley Psychiatrists


Q & A – My social worker has not used a genogram to identify family history

It’s important to note that the use of genograms may vary among social workers and their individual practice preferences or approaches. While genograms can be a helpful tool in understanding family history and dynamics, not all social workers may choose to utilize them in their practice.

If you feel that exploring your family history and understanding the impact of family dynamics on your current situation would be beneficial, you can certainly discuss this with your social worker. Express your interest in using a genogram as a visual representation of your family system and how it may contribute to the issues you are facing.

Your social worker can provide insight into their reasons for not using a genogram and discuss alternative methods they employ to assess and address family history and dynamics. It’s important to maintain open communication with your social worker, expressing your needs and preferences regarding the therapeutic process.

Remember that social workers employ various assessment tools and approaches based on their training, experience, and the specific needs of their clients. The ultimate goal is to work collaboratively with your social worker to identify and address any family history problems or other issues that may be impacting your well-being.

© Linda C J Turner


Q & A -Do social workers use genograms?

Yes, social workers commonly use genograms as a valuable tool in their practice. Genograms provide social workers with a visual representation of a client’s family system, helping them to assess and understand the dynamics, relationships, and patterns that may be impacting an individual or family’s well-being. Here are some ways in which social workers use genograms:

  1. Assessment and Intervention: Social workers use genograms during the assessment phase to gather comprehensive information about a client’s family background, including family structure, significant relationships, and relevant life events. This aids in understanding the client’s social context, identifying strengths and challenges, and formulating appropriate interventions. Genograms help social workers explore intergenerational patterns, family roles, communication styles, and any systemic factors that contribute to the client’s current situation.
  2. Treatment Planning: Genograms assist social workers in developing effective treatment plans. By visually representing family relationships and dynamics, genograms help identify areas for intervention, potential sources of support, and possible barriers to progress. Social workers can use the genogram to collaboratively set goals with the client and develop strategies that take into account the broader family system.
  3. Relationship and Systems Assessment: Genograms help social workers assess the quality of relationships and systems within the family. They can highlight patterns of conflict, abuse, neglect, or other dysfunctional dynamics that may need to be addressed. Social workers can also identify existing strengths, resilience, and supportive networks that can be mobilized to promote positive change and well-being.
  4. Psychoeducation and Family Engagement: Genograms are a valuable psychoeducational tool for social workers to engage clients and families in the therapeutic process. They can be used to illustrate concepts, explain the impact of family history on current functioning, and facilitate discussions around the client’s support system and resources. Genograms can foster a shared understanding among family members and help them recognize how their actions and interactions affect one another.
  5. Advocacy and Resource Allocation: Genograms can inform social workers’ advocacy efforts on behalf of clients and families. By mapping out the family system and identifying available resources, social workers can advocate for appropriate services, support, and interventions that address the specific needs of the client and their family. Genograms can help social workers make evidence-based recommendations and collaborate with other professionals involved in the client’s care.

In summary, genograms are a versatile and valuable tool for social workers, enabling them to assess, understand, and intervene in the complex dynamics of families and individuals they work with.

© Linda C J Turner


Glossary of PA

Here are some commonly used terms in the context of Parental Alienation:

  1. Parental Alienation: A phenomenon where one parent deliberately or unconsciously turns their child against the other parent.
  2. Alienating Parent: The parent who engages in behaviors that alienate the child from the other parent.
  3. Targeted Parent: The parent who is the subject of the alienation campaign and is being alienated from their child.
  4. Gatekeeping: The act of one parent trying to restrict or control the other parent’s access to the child.
  5. Brainwashing: The process by which the alienating parent manipulates and indoctrinates the child against the targeted parent.
  6. Enmeshment: An unhealthy emotional bond between the alienating parent and the child that excludes the other parent.
  7. Triangulation: The alienating parent uses the child to communicate with the targeted parent, creating tension and conflict.
  8. PAS (Parental Alienation Syndrome): A controversial term used to describe a cluster of symptoms exhibited by a child who has been alienated from a parent.
  9. Gaslighting: The alienating parent distorts or denies the targeted parent’s reality to make them feel crazy or unstable.
  10. Coercive Control: The alienating parent uses tactics such as intimidation, isolation, and financial control to dominate and manipulate the child and the targeted parent.
  1. Flying Monkeys: People who the alienating parent enlists to assist them in their campaign to alienate the child from the targeted parent.
  2. Parentectomy: A term used to describe the extreme form of parental alienation where the child has completely cut off contact with the targeted parent.
  3. Parental Gatekeeping: The positive or negative influence one parent has over the child’s relationship with the other parent.
  4. Shared Parenting: A parenting arrangement where both parents share the responsibility and decision-making for their child.
  5. Reunification Therapy: A therapeutic process designed to help a child and targeted parent rebuild their relationship after parental alienation.
  6. High-Conflict Divorce: A divorce where there is a high level of conflict between the parents, which can increase the likelihood of parental alienation.
  7. Parallel Parenting: A parenting approach where each parent has their own separate rules and routines for their time with the child, minimizing conflict and contact.
  8. Custodial Interference: The intentional or unintentional interference with the other parent’s custodial rights, which can lead to legal consequences.
  9. Parental Abduction: When one parent takes a child without the other parent’s permission or against a court order, which is illegal.
  10. Parental Alienation Awareness: A movement to raise awareness about the damaging effects of parental alienation and promote solutions to prevent it.

 © Linda C J Turner


Child psychological abuse

In the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition), child psychological abuse is not listed as a separate diagnosis. However, the DSM-5 does provide criteria for diagnosing the effects of child abuse and neglect under the umbrella of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), among other relevant disorders. Child psychological abuse can have significant and lasting effects on a child’s psychological well-being.

Child psychological abuse refers to the sustained and intentional pattern of behaviors by caregivers that involves the infliction of emotional or psychological harm upon a child. It can include acts such as constant criticism, belittling, humiliation, rejection, scapegoating, withholding love or affection, terrorizing, isolating, or exploiting a child. Psychological abuse undermines a child’s sense of self-worth, emotional stability, and overall psychological development.

While the DSM-5 does not have a specific diagnostic category for child psychological abuse, it recognizes the impact of childhood trauma on mental health and includes criteria for diagnosing PTSD and RAD, which may be applicable to children who have experienced psychological abuse. These criteria take into account the effects of traumatic experiences, including emotional and psychological abuse, on a child’s functioning and behavior.

It’s important to note that the recognition and understanding of child psychological abuse have evolved beyond what is explicitly outlined in the DSM-5. Mental health professionals consider various factors and utilize comprehensive assessments to evaluate and address the impact of psychological abuse on a child’s well-being. If you suspect a child is experiencing psychological abuse, it is essential to report your concerns to the appropriate child protective services or seek help from a qualified professional.

 © Linda C J Turner


Q & A – What causes paranoia?

Paranoia can have various causes, and it is often associated with underlying mental health conditions. Here are some factors that can contribute to the development of paranoia:

  1. Mental illnesses: Paranoia is commonly associated with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. In these conditions, individuals experience distortions in their perception of reality, leading to the development of paranoid beliefs and suspicions.
  2. Substance abuse: The use of certain substances, particularly stimulants like amphetamines or hallucinogens like LSD, can induce paranoid symptoms. Substance-induced paranoia may subside once the effects of the substances wear off, but long-term substance abuse can also contribute to the development of chronic paranoia.
  3. Personality disorders: Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a specific personality disorder characterized by long-standing patterns of pervasive distrust, suspicion, and hypersensitivity. People with PPD tend to interpret others’ actions as malevolent and harbor unfounded suspicions about their motives.
  4. Traumatic experiences: Individuals who have experienced traumatic events, such as physical or emotional abuse, may develop paranoid tendencies as a way to protect themselves from perceived threats. The sense of vulnerability and a loss of trust in others can contribute to the development of paranoia.
  5. Anxiety disorders: While not everyone with an anxiety disorder experiences paranoia, severe anxiety can lead to distorted thinking patterns and excessive worry, which may manifest as paranoid thoughts or beliefs.
  6. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease), brain tumors, or epilepsy, can cause changes in brain function that result in paranoid symptoms.

It’s important to note that paranoia can vary in intensity and duration, and its causes are not always straightforward. A comprehensive evaluation by a mental health professional is crucial in determining the underlying factors contributing to an individual’s paranoia and developing an appropriate treatment plan.

 © Linda C J Turner


Q & A – Do narcissists suffer from paranoia?

Narcissism and paranoia are separate psychological conditions, but there can be some overlap in certain cases. Let’s explore these terms individually:

  1. Narcissism: Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is a mental health condition characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance, a constant need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others. People with NPD often have a grandiose self-image, believe they are superior to others, and expect special treatment.
  2. Paranoia: Paranoia refers to an irrational or exaggerated distrust or suspiciousness of others. It involves a persistent belief that others are out to harm, deceive, or conspire against oneself, even in the absence of evidence supporting such beliefs.

While narcissists may not necessarily experience clinical paranoia, they can exhibit certain paranoid traits or tendencies due to their underlying personality disorder. Some examples include:

  1. Hypersensitivity to criticism: Narcissists often have fragile self-esteem and can react strongly to any perceived criticism or disapproval. They may interpret neutral or benign comments as personal attacks and become defensive or suspicious of others’ intentions.
  2. Distrust of others’ motives: Narcissists may be skeptical of others’ intentions and motivations, assuming that people are primarily interested in exploiting or undermining them. This can lead to a general sense of mistrust and suspicion.
  3. Projection: Narcissists may project their own negative traits onto others. They may believe that others possess the same manipulative or deceitful tendencies that they themselves exhibit, leading to a heightened sense of paranoia.
  4. Conspiracy theories: In some cases, narcissists may be drawn to conspiracy theories that validate their grandiose beliefs or reinforce their sense of victimhood. This can contribute to a more pronounced paranoid worldview.

It’s important to note that not all narcissists will display paranoid traits, and not all individuals with paranoia are narcissistic. Each person’s experience and presentation of these conditions can vary significantly. If you or someone you know is struggling with narcissism, paranoia, or any mental health concerns, it’s recommended to seek professional help from a qualified mental health practitioner.

 © Linda C J Turner

PERSONALITY DISORDERS Projection Q & A with #LindaCJTurner

Q & A – What is projection in psychology?

In psychology, projection refers to a defense mechanism that involves attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or characteristics to someone else. It is a way of dealing with uncomfortable or unacceptable aspects of oneself by projecting them onto another person. This mechanism operates on an unconscious level, meaning that individuals are often not aware that they are projecting their own internal experiences onto others.

Projection can occur in various forms. Here are a few examples:

  1. Emotional projection: Attributing one’s own emotions, such as anger, jealousy, or fear, to someone else. For instance, an individual who feels insecure may project their insecurities onto others by assuming that others are judging or criticizing them.
  2. Attribute projection: Attributing one’s own traits or characteristics to others. For example, someone who is dishonest may project their own deceitfulness onto others and assume that others are being deceptive.
  3. Moral projection: Believing that one’s own moral standards or values are universal and applying them to others. This can involve judging others based on one’s own beliefs or assuming that others share the same attitudes or behaviors.
  4. Wish fulfillment projection: Projecting one’s own desires, fantasies, or wishes onto others. This can occur when an individual attributes their own unfulfilled desires to someone else and assumes that the other person possesses those desires.

Projection can serve as a defense mechanism to protect one’s self-image, avoid feelings of guilt or shame, or maintain a sense of control. However, it can distort one’s perceptions and hinder personal growth and understanding of oneself.

In therapeutic settings, projection is often explored and analyzed to help individuals gain insight into their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. By recognizing and understanding projection, individuals can work towards greater self-awareness and develop healthier ways of dealing with their own experiences.

© Linda C J Turner


Q & A – What is projection?

Projection is a defense mechanism in which individuals attribute their own unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or traits to others instead of acknowledging them within themselves. It is a way of avoiding or denying uncomfortable aspects of oneself by projecting them onto someone else. Here are a few points to understand projection as a defense mechanism:

  1. Unconscious process: Projection typically operates on an unconscious level, meaning that individuals are not consciously aware that they are projecting their own thoughts or feelings onto others. It happens automatically as a way to protect the ego from discomfort or anxiety.
  2. Avoiding self-awareness: Projection allows individuals to avoid taking responsibility for their own thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. By attributing these aspects to others, they can distance themselves from the discomfort associated with those qualities.
  3. Blaming others: Projection often involves blaming or criticizing others for thoughts or feelings that the individual is unwilling to acknowledge in themselves. For example, someone who feels jealous may project their jealousy onto someone else by accusing them of being jealous instead.
  4. Defense against anxiety: Projection serves as a defense mechanism to protect the individual’s self-esteem and maintain a positive self-image. By projecting negative traits or emotions onto others, individuals can maintain the illusion of being “better” or “morally superior.”
  5. Lack of self-awareness: Engaging in projection can hinder self-awareness and personal growth. When individuals consistently project their own undesirable traits onto others, they miss the opportunity to reflect on and address those aspects within themselves.

It’s important to note that while projection can provide temporary relief from anxiety or discomfort, it does not address the underlying issues and can strain relationships. Developing self-awareness, introspection, and seeking professional help, such as therapy, can be valuable in understanding and addressing projection as a defense mechanism.

© Linda C J Turner

Brainwashing - Mind Control Coercive Control coercive control EMOTIONAL ABUSE

“Cycle of abuse,” when the abuser shows kindness!

The term “cycle of abuse” refers to a pattern that can occur in abusive relationships, where there is a repeated cycle of tension building, an abusive incident, a period of remorse or reconciliation, and then a calm or honeymoon phase. It is important to note that this pattern does not justify or excuse abusive behavior in any way.

In some cases, an abuser may exhibit moments of kindness or remorse following an abusive incident. This behavior can be confusing and contradictory for the victim, as it creates a sense of hope and attachment. The abuser may use these acts of kindness as a way to manipulate and maintain control over the victim. They may also apologize, make promises to change, or provide gifts or gestures to alleviate guilt and maintain the victim’s loyalty.

However, it is important to understand that these moments of kindness do not negate the abusive behavior or indicate genuine change. They are often part of a cycle designed to keep the victim trapped in the abusive relationship. The abuser may use these moments to minimize the severity of their actions, shift blame onto the victim, or create a sense of dependency.

Recognizing the cycle of abuse and understanding that kindness following abuse does not erase or excuse the harm caused is crucial. It is essential for victims to prioritize their safety and well-being and seek support from trusted friends, family, or professionals. Breaking free from an abusive relationship often requires a comprehensive safety plan and accessing resources such as counseling, helplines, or shelters that specialize in assisting victims of abuse.

If you or someone you know is experiencing abuse, it is important to reach out to local helplines or organizations that can provide guidance and support. Remember, everyone deserves to be treated with respect, kindness, and dignity.

© Linda C J Turner