This lecture continues to cover one of the most salient areas within the field of psychology known as psychopathology, or clinical psychology. Following a discussion of the different ways of defining mental illness, Professor Bloom reviews several classes of clinical diagnoses including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, and personality disorders. The lecture concludes with a brief introduction to therapy.
There are many different situations that could prompt a referral to child protective services in the UK. Here are some examples of children who may be in need of child protection services:
A child who has been physically abused – This could include a child who has been beaten, slapped, or otherwise physically harmed by a caregiver.
A child who has been sexually abused – This could include a child who has been sexually assaulted or abused by a caregiver or other person in a position of authority.
A child who has been neglected – This could include a child who is not receiving adequate food, clothing, or medical care, or who is not being adequately supervised.
A child who is living in a home with domestic violence – This could include a child who is exposed to domestic violence between their parents or other caregivers.
A child who is living in a home with drug or alcohol abuse – This could include a child who is exposed to drug or alcohol abuse by their parents or other caregivers.
A child who is living in a home with severe mental illness – This could include a child who is living with a parent or caregiver who has severe mental health issues and is unable to provide adequate care.
A child who is at risk of harm from a caregiver – This could include a child who is living with a parent or caregiver who has a history of violence, substance abuse, or neglect.
In each of these situations, child protective services would be responsible for investigating the situation and taking appropriate action to ensure the child’s safety and wellbeing. This may involve working with the family to address any underlying issues, or removing the child from the home if necessary.
There are many medical journals that are published in the UK and cover a wide range of medical topics. Some of the most well-known medical journals in the UK include:
The British Medical Journal (BMJ) – a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers a broad range of medical topics, including clinical practice, public health, and medical research.
The Lancet – a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers a wide range of medical topics, including clinical practice, public health, and medical research.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) – a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers a broad range of medical topics, including clinical practice, public health, and medical research.
The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine – a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers a wide range of medical topics, including clinical practice, public health, and medical research.
The Annals of Internal Medicine – a bi-weekly peer-reviewed medical journal that focuses on internal medicine and covers a broad range of medical topics.
These journals are just a few examples of the many medical journals that are published in the UK. Medical professionals can subscribe to these journals or access them through a medical library or online database.
The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) includes a category of disorders called “V-codes,” which are used to indicate conditions or factors that are not considered mental disorders but may have an impact on the individual’s mental health.
One of the V-codes in the DSM-5 is V995.51, which refers to “child psychological abuse, confirmed.” This code is used to indicate that a child has been subjected to psychological abuse, which can include a wide range of behaviors such as emotional neglect, verbal abuse, excessive criticism, and other forms of psychological trauma.
It’s important to note that the DSM-5 does not provide a specific diagnosis for child psychological abuse, but rather includes this V-code as a way to acknowledge the impact of this type of abuse on a child’s mental health. The DSM-5 emphasizes the need for clinicians to carefully evaluate and document the impact of psychological abuse on a child’s development and to provide appropriate interventions to address the child’s needs.
Inappropriate parental behavior refers to actions or behaviors exhibited by a parent that are harmful, abusive, or neglectful towards their child. Here are some examples of inappropriate parental behavior:
Physical abuse: This can include hitting, slapping, punching, kicking, or any other form of physical violence towards the child.
Emotional abuse: This can include belittling, shaming, criticizing, or insulting the child. It can also include withholding love and affection or manipulating the child’s emotions.
Neglect: This can include failing to provide the child with basic needs such as food, shelter, clothing, or medical care. It can also include emotional neglect, such as failing to provide emotional support or attention.
Sexual abuse: This can include any sexual activity between a parent and child, including inappropriate touching, sexual contact, or exposure to pornography.
Substance abuse: If a parent is using drugs or alcohol to the extent that it affects their ability to care for their child, it can be considered inappropriate parental behavior.
Enmeshment or emotional incest: This occurs when a parent relies on their child for emotional support and intimacy that should be reserved for adult relationships, as discussed in my previous response.
It’s important to note that any behavior that puts a child at risk of harm or interferes with their healthy development can be considered inappropriate parental behavior. If you suspect a child is experiencing inappropriate parental behavior, it’s important to report it to the appropriate authorities or seek help from a trusted professional.
A mother confiding in her daughter about her marital problems, seeking emotional support and reassurance from the child, rather than her spouse or a therapist.
A father relying on his son to fulfill his emotional needs, seeking comfort and validation from the child rather than seeking appropriate adult relationships or therapy.
A parent discussing intimate details about their sex life with their child, forcing the child to become an unwilling participant in their sexual relationship.
A parent making the child feel responsible for their emotional well-being, saying things like “you’re the only one who understands me” or “I don’t know what I’d do without you.”
A parent treating the child more like a partner than a child, such as sharing inappropriate jokes or engaging in flirtatious behavior.
It’s important to note that emotional incest can take many different forms and may not always be obvious or easily identifiable. The key factor is that the child is being forced into an inappropriate and unhealthy emotional relationship with the parent.
Emotional incest, also known as covert incest, refers to a type of relationship in which a parent (usually a mother) relies on their child (usually a son or daughter) for emotional support and intimacy that should be reserved for adult relationships.
In emotional incest, the child is forced into a role of meeting the emotional needs of the parent, often at the expense of their own emotional development and autonomy. The parent may share inappropriate information with the child, such as their own personal problems or intimate details about their own relationships. The child may also be expected to provide comfort, reassurance, and validation to the parent, and may feel responsible for the parent’s emotional well-being.
Emotional incest can have long-term negative effects on the child’s emotional and psychological well-being, as well as their ability to form healthy relationships as an adult. It is important to note that emotional incest is a form of emotional abuse and is not the fault of the child.
Children who are brought up in a family of lies and deceit can experience a range of negative effects on their emotional, psychological, and social development. Here are some potential consequences:
Trust issues: Children who grow up in a family where lying and deception are common may struggle to trust others and may even become skeptical or paranoid.
Emotional dysregulation: Children who are exposed to deception and dishonesty may find it difficult to regulate their own emotions, leading to emotional outbursts or mood swings.
Low self-esteem: Children who are repeatedly lied to or deceived may develop feelings of self-doubt and worthlessness.
Difficulty forming relationships: Children who grow up in an environment of lies and deceit may find it difficult to form healthy relationships and to trust others.
Poor academic performance: Children who are exposed to high levels of stress and emotional turmoil at home may struggle academically.
Mental health problems: Children who experience chronic stress and trauma in their childhood may be at higher risk of developing mental health problems, such as anxiety, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
It’s important to note that every child’s experience is unique, and some children may be more resilient than others. However, growing up in a family of lies and deceit can have long-lasting effects on a child’s development and wellbeing. If you suspect that a child may be experiencing these issues, it’s important to seek professional help and support.
Here are some examples of people with little or no emotional intelligence:
The insensitive colleague: This is the person who is always making jokes at inappropriate times, or who speaks in a way that is hurtful to others without realizing it.
The hot-headed boss: This is the boss who flies off the handle at the slightest provocation, or who is always yelling at their employees.
The self-absorbed partner: This is the person who is so focused on their own needs and desires that they can’t seem to see or understand the feelings and needs of their partner.
The oblivious friend: This is the friend who doesn’t seem to understand or acknowledge the emotions of others, or who is always talking about themselves without showing interest in what others have to say.
The argumentative family member: This is the family member who always seems to pick fights or argue with others, even over small or insignificant things.
The passive-aggressive coworker: This is the person who never speaks up about their issues or concerns, but instead communicates through subtle hints or manipulative behavior.
The emotionally distant parent: This is the parent who is always physically present but emotionally absent, and who seems unable to connect with their children on an emotional level.
It’s important to note that emotional intelligence is a complex and multifaceted trait, and it’s possible for someone to have strengths in some areas but weaknesses in others.
Lying to social workers can have serious consequences, as social workers are responsible for protecting vulnerable individuals, such as children, elderly, and disabled persons. When social workers suspect that someone may be lying to them, they will typically investigate further to determine the truth.
Social workers may use a variety of techniques to verify the information they are given, such as interviewing other witnesses, conducting home visits, reviewing medical records, or collaborating with other professionals such as law enforcement or healthcare providers. They may also ask open-ended questions and look for inconsistencies in the individual’s story.
If a social worker determines that someone has lied to them, it can impact the services or assistance that person receives. For example, if a parent lies to a social worker about their ability to care for their child, the social worker may remove the child from the home or recommend that the parent receive parenting classes or counseling.
In some cases, lying to a social worker can also result in criminal charges if the lie is related to a crime, such as child abuse or neglect. It is always best to be honest with social workers, as they are there to help and provide support to individuals and families in need.
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