“Assessing psychopathic attributes in a noninstitutionalized population”

“Assessing psychopathic attributes in a noninstitutionalized population” is a research article by Michael R. Levenson, Karen A. Kiehl, and Robert D. Fitzpatrick, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology in 1995. The article describes the development and validation of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP), a self-report measure of psychopathic traits that is designed for use in noninstitutionalized populations.

The article begins by discussing the limitations of existing measures of psychopathy, which were primarily developed for use with incarcerated populations and may not be well-suited for use in community settings. The authors argue that there is a need for a self-report measure of psychopathic traits that can be used with noninstitutionalized populations in order to better understand the prevalence and correlates of psychopathy in the general population.

The authors then describe the development of the LSRP, which is based on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) but is designed for self-report by noninstitutionalized individuals. The LSRP consists of 26 items that assess both primary and secondary psychopathy, and participants rate themselves on a 4-point Likert scale, from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.”

The authors report that the LSRP has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and that it is positively correlated with other measures of psychopathy, antisocial behavior, and aggression. The authors also report that the LSRP is able to discriminate between individuals with and without a history of criminal behavior, and that it is not significantly influenced by factors such as age, sex, or level of education.

Overall, the article suggests that the LSRP is a reliable and valid measure of psychopathic traits that can be used with noninstitutionalized populations. The authors argue that the LSRP has important implications for the study of psychopathy in the general population, and that it may be useful for identifying individuals who are at risk for engaging in criminal behavior or other forms of antisocial behavior.

“Impasse and Interpretation”

Herbert Rosenfeld was a British psychoanalyst who made significant contributions to the understanding of personality disorders. In 1987, his book “Impasse and Interpretation” was published, which focused on the psychoanalytic treatment of patients with severe personality disorders.

In the book, Rosenfeld describes his theory of the “psychotic organization,” which refers to a state of mind in which the individual’s ego and internal object relationships are severely disturbed. He argues that patients with severe personality disorders, such as borderline and narcissistic personality disorder, often have this kind of organization, which makes them resistant to therapy.

Rosenfeld emphasizes the importance of the therapist’s ability to tolerate the patient’s intense emotional reactions, which are often expressed in the transference. He argues that the therapist must work to interpret the patient’s unconscious anxieties and defences, while also being careful not to overwhelm the patient with too much interpretation too quickly.

Rosenfeld also discusses the importance of the therapist’s countertransference, arguing that the therapist’s own emotional reactions to the patient can provide important clues to the patient’s unconscious conflicts.

“Impasse and Interpretation” has been influential in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, particularly in the treatment of patients with severe personality disorders. However, Rosenfeld’s ideas have also been subject to criticism and debate, particularly around the potential for therapist abuse of power and the use of interpretation in the context of severe transference and countertransference difficulties.

“Severe Personality Disorders: Psychotherapeutic Strategies”

“Severe Personality Disorders: Psychotherapeutic Strategies” is a book written by Otto F. Kernberg, a psychoanalyst and psychiatrist, and published in 1984. The book focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of severe personality disorders, including borderline and narcissistic personality disorders.

In the book, Kernberg provides a comprehensive overview of the psychoanalytic theory and practice of treating personality disorders, with a particular emphasis on the narcissistic personality disorder. He discusses the clinical features of the disorder, such as the patient’s grandiosity, lack of empathy, and fragile self-esteem, and explores the underlying psychological dynamics that contribute to these symptoms.

Kernberg also presents his model of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for narcissistic patients, which emphasizes the importance of understanding and interpreting the patient’s defensive structures and early life experiences. He advocates for an active and confrontational approach to therapy, aimed at helping the patient to develop a more realistic and integrated sense of self.

The book has been widely influential in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, and Kernberg’s approach to treating narcissistic personality disorder has been adopted by many practitioners. However, his ideas have also been subject to criticism and debate, particularly around the use of confrontation and the potential for therapist abuse of power.

“The Wounds of Narcissism: A Clinical Study of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder,”

Akhtar and Thomson (1982) and Cooper (1981) are both researchers who made important contributions to the field of psychology.

Akhtar and Thomson (1982) co-authored a book titled “The Wounds of Narcissism: A Clinical Study of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder,” in which they explore the clinical features of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and the psychological wounds that underlie it. They argue that NPD arises from early experiences of emotional deprivation, which can result in a fragile sense of self and a desperate need for admiration and validation from others. The authors also discuss various treatment approaches for NPD, including the use of empathic confrontation and the development of a therapeutic relationship.

Cooper (1981) published a book titled “The Narcissistic Vulnerability of the Analyst,” in which he explores the ways in which narcissistic tendencies can influence the practice of psychoanalysis. Cooper argues that analysts who have unresolved narcissistic vulnerabilities may struggle to maintain an appropriate therapeutic stance, leading to ethical violations and potential harm to patients. He emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and ongoing self-examination for psychoanalysts, in order to avoid the pitfalls of narcissistic vulnerability.

Both Akhtar and Thomson (1982) and Cooper (1981) were influential in their respective fields and made important contributions to our understanding of narcissism and the practice of psychoanalysis.

“The Disorders of the Self and Their Treatment: An Outline.”

Kohut and Wolfe (1978) co-authored a book titled “The Disorders of the Self and Their Treatment: An Outline.”

The book builds on Kohut’s previous work on self psychology and expands on his theory of self-structure and the importance of the therapeutic relationship. The authors argue that psychological disorders often arise from disturbances in the development of the self, which can be caused by a variety of factors including childhood trauma, neglect, or emotional deprivation.

Kohut and Wolfe propose that the goal of therapy should be to help patients to develop a stronger sense of self and to integrate disowned aspects of themselves. They emphasize the importance of the therapeutic relationship, particularly the role of the therapist in providing empathic understanding and support.

The book outlines a number of therapeutic techniques that can be used to help xpertspatients develop a healthier sense of self, including mirroring, idealization, and transmuting internalization. These techniques are designed to help patients build a stronger sense of self and to repair the damage caused by early experiences of emotional deprivation or trauma.

Overall, Kohut and Wolfe’s work was influential in the development of the field of self-psychology, which emphasizes the importance of the self in psychological functioning and the need for individualized, empathic therapy to promote healthy self-development.

Q & A – What is Kleinian view?

The Kleinian view is a psychoanalytic approach to understanding the internal world of the human mind, developed by the British psychoanalyst, Melanie Klein. According to Klein, the human psyche is shaped by two primary internal states – the depressive position and the paranoid-schizoid position.

The depressive position refers to a stage of development in which individuals come to understand the world as more complex and realize the existence of both good and bad. They begin to feel guilty for their aggressive impulses and begin to form reparative relationships with others.

In contrast, the paranoid-schizoid position is a stage of development characterized by feelings of anxiety, fragmentation, and splitting. Individuals in this state may view the world and relationships as black and white, and often experience intense feelings of aggression and envy towards others.

Klein’s theory emphasizes the importance of the mother-infant relationship in shaping the development of the child’s psyche. She believed that infants have innate drives towards both life and death, and that the mother plays a critical role in helping the child navigate these drives.

Kleinian psychoanalysis is characterized by a focus on the internal world of the patient and a belief that early childhood experiences shape the development of the psyche. Kleinian analysts often use techniques such as free association, interpretation, and transference analysis to help patients gain insight into their internal conflicts and develop reparative relationships with others.

©Linda Turner http://parentalalienationpas.com 2023



The harsh reality of “perspecticide” in a coercive control relationship

People subjected to perspecticide often blame themselves, as they feel despairing and disoriented. It can be hard for them to figure out exactly what’s wrong. Controlling partners serve as a filter for the outside world, gradually forcing their victims to lose the support of family, friends, and coworkers. Isolated and controlled in this way, victims lose self-esteem and have trouble remembering what they once thought, felt, and believed. There is hope, however, for victims of perspecticide and coercive control. And recovering one’s own perspectives and life is mighty sweet.

For more information on how to recognize perspecticide and reclaim your sense of self after a controlling relationship, please check out Invisible Chains: Overcoming Coercive Control in Your Intimate Relationship.

Stalking the Soul

“In this groundbreaking account–already an international bestseller–Dr. Marie-France Hirigoyen lays bare the destructive ‘hidden’ phenomenon of emotional abuse. She argues that while emotional abuse is not as visible as physical abuse, it is equally violent–and perhaps even more widespread. …

Marie-France Hirigoyen

Exclusive interview – Marie-France Hirigoyen – Psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and family psychotherapist – A renowned expert in emotional abuse and bullying from France / By Laura Quiun and Jesús Larena.

“We find narcissistic individuals everywhere, who are willing to do anything to obtain or maintain power”

New Year 2023

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