Coercive Control coercive control Complex Trauma Dysfunctional Children EMOTIONAL ABUSE LINDA C J TURNER Q & A with #LindaCJTurner

Q & A – Childhood Trauma?

Childhood trauma can have a profound and lasting impact on a person’s physical, emotional, and mental well-being. Dr. Bessel van der Kolk is a leading expert in the field of trauma and has extensively studied the effects of childhood trauma on individuals. Here are some of the key effects of childhood trauma as identified by van der Kolk in his 2016 book, “The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma”:

  1. Altered Brain Development: Childhood trauma can cause changes in the structure and function of the brain. These changes can lead to difficulties with emotion regulation, attention, memory, and learning.
  2. Dysregulated Nervous System: Childhood trauma can cause the nervous system to become dysregulated, leading to chronic feelings of anxiety, hypervigilance, and a heightened startle response.
  3. Physical Health Problems: Childhood trauma has been linked to a range of physical health problems, including autoimmune disorders, chronic pain, and cardiovascular disease.
  4. Impaired Attachment: Childhood trauma can disrupt the development of secure attachment relationships, leading to difficulties forming and maintaining close relationships throughout life.
  5. Impaired Self-Regulation: Childhood trauma can interfere with the development of self-regulation skills, making it difficult to manage emotions and behaviors in a healthy way.
  6. Emotional Dysregulation: Childhood trauma can lead to intense and unpredictable emotional reactions, including anger, fear, and shame.
  7. Substance Abuse: Childhood trauma is a risk factor for developing substance use disorders later in life.

Overall, childhood trauma can have a profound impact on a person’s life, but with proper treatment and support, individuals can heal and recover from the effects of trauma.

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“Child affected by parental relationship distress” (CAPRD)

“Child affected by parental relationship distress” (CAPRD) is a term used to describe children who experience negative consequences as a result of witnessing conflict or distress between their parents or caregivers. CAPRD is a relatively new term that was introduced in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) in 2013 as a condition for further study.

Children who are exposed to parental conflict or distress may experience a range of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties. Some of the common symptoms associated with CAPRD may include anxiety, depression, behavioral problems, academic difficulties, and problems with social relationships.

It’s important to note that not all children who experience parental conflict will develop CAPRD, and the severity and duration of the conflict may also impact the likelihood of negative outcomes. Additionally, the impact of parental conflict on children may depend on a range of factors, including the child’s age, temperament, and coping skills, as well as the quality of the parent-child relationship.

Interventions for CAPRD may include individual and family therapy, parental education and support, and interventions aimed at improving communication and reducing conflict between parents. Early intervention is particularly important as it may help to prevent long-term negative outcomes and promote healthy development in affected children.

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Q & A – What is Mutilation Of A Child’s Spirit?

Mutilation of a child’s spirit refers to any action or behavior that causes harm to a child’s emotional or psychological well-being. It can be intentional or unintentional and can manifest in various forms such as physical, sexual, emotional, or verbal abuse.

Childhood trauma caused by abuse or neglect can have lifelong effects on a child’s mental health and wellbeing, leading to long-term consequences such as low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and even suicidal ideation.

It is important for adults, caregivers, and the community to take responsibility for ensuring the safety and well-being of children, and to create safe environments where children can thrive and develop into healthy adults.

If you or someone you know is experiencing or has experienced abuse or neglect, it is important to seek help and support from a trusted authority, such as a healthcare professional, counselor, or law enforcement.

 © Linda C J Turner

Coercive Control coercive control Complex Trauma EMOTIONAL ABUSE LINDA C J TURNER Q & A with #LindaCJTurner

Q & A – What is the difference between invalidation & perspecticide?

Invalidation and perspecticide are both harmful experiences that can impact a person’s sense of self and wellbeing, but they have different meanings and implications.

Invalidation refers to the act of denying, rejecting, or ignoring someone’s thoughts, feelings, or experiences. It can happen in many different contexts, such as personal relationships, social interactions, and professional environments. When someone invalidates another person, they essentially communicate that the other person’s perspective is wrong, unworthy, or irrelevant. This can lead to feelings of confusion, self-doubt, and frustration, as the invalidated person may feel like their thoughts and emotions are not being seen or heard.

Perspecticide, on the other hand, is a term used to describe a more extreme form of invalidation that can occur in situations where people are subjected to sustained psychological pressure or trauma, such as in abusive relationships or cults. Perspecticide involves systematically dismantling a person’s sense of self and agency, and replacing it with a new, manipulated perspective that aligns with the abuser’s or group’s agenda. In this sense, perspecticide is a form of psychological manipulation that can have severe and long-lasting effects on a person’s mental health and wellbeing.

In summary, while invalidation refers to the act of dismissing someone’s perspective or experience, perspecticide involves a more extreme and intentional form of invalidation that can result in significant harm to a person’s sense of self and autonomy.


Q & A – What is Protracted Childhood Trauma?

Protracted childhood trauma, such as abuse or neglect, can have a lasting impact on a person’s brain and overall wellbeing. However, there are ways to repair some of the damage caused by such trauma. Here are three ways to repair brain damage caused by protracted childhood trauma:

  1. Therapy: Therapy, particularly trauma-focused therapy, can help individuals process and heal from the effects of childhood trauma. Therapy can help individuals reframe negative beliefs and patterns of thinking, learn coping mechanisms, and develop healthier ways of relating to others. Specific types of therapy that have been shown to be effective for repairing brain damage caused by childhood trauma include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and somatic experiencing.
  2. Mind-body practices: Mind-body practices such as meditation, yoga, and tai chi can help individuals regulate their nervous system and decrease stress and anxiety. These practices have been shown to increase the size of the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain responsible for executive functioning, decision-making, and emotional regulation. Mind-body practices can also increase the production of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which can help to reduce anxiety and promote feelings of calm.
  3. Exercise: Exercise has been shown to promote the growth of new neurons in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, a part of the brain important for learning and memory. Exercise also increases the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that supports the growth and survival of neurons. Regular exercise can help individuals to manage the symptoms of anxiety and depression, which can be common in those who have experienced childhood trauma.

It’s important to note that repairing brain damage caused by childhood trauma is a complex process, and what works for one person may not work for another. It’s also important to seek out professional support from a therapist or other mental health professional trained in trauma treatment.

Complex Trauma EMOTIONAL ABUSE LINDA C J TURNER Q & A with #LindaCJTurner

Q & A – what is betrayal trauma?

Betrayal trauma is a term used to describe the emotional and psychological distress that results from a betrayal by a person with whom a close relationship is trusted and depended upon. The betrayal can involve infidelity, lying, hiding information, breaking promises, or violating boundaries, and it can occur in any type of close relationship, such as romantic partnerships, friendships, or family relationships.

The experience of betrayal trauma can be extremely painful and can cause a range of emotional and physical symptoms, including depression, anxiety, anger, feelings of powerlessness, and physical health problems. The effects of betrayal trauma can be long-lasting and can impact a person’s ability to trust others and form healthy relationships in the future.

Therapy and support groups can be helpful for individuals who have experienced betrayal trauma to process their emotions, develop coping strategies, and rebuild their sense of trust and safety in relationships.

Complex Trauma Dysfunctional Children EMOTIONAL ABUSE LINDA C J TURNER Q & A with #LindaCJTurner

Q & A – When a parent betrays a child

When a parent betrays a child, it can be a particularly devastating form of betrayal trauma because parents are often the primary source of love, safety, and support for children. Betrayals by a parent can take many forms, including physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, abandonment, or other forms of mistreatment.

The effects of parental betrayal can be severe and long-lasting, and can impact a child’s emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. Children who experience parental betrayal may struggle with feelings of shame, guilt, anger, and confusion, and may develop low self-esteem and difficulty trusting others.

Treatment for betrayal trauma involving a parent may involve individual therapy, family therapy, or support groups that specialize in working with survivors of childhood trauma. It’s important for individuals who have experienced parental betrayal to seek out support and care, as the effects of this type of trauma can be complex and long-lasting.


Q & A – Kübler-Ross’s Five Stages of Grief

Kübler-Ross’s Five Stages of Grief is a model that describes the emotional process that many people go through when dealing with grief and loss. The model was developed by Swiss-American psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross in her 1969 book “On Death and Dying.” The stages are:

  1. Denial: The first stage involves a refusal to accept the reality of the loss. This can manifest as shock, numbness, disbelief, or a sense of unreality.
  2. Anger: As the reality of the loss sets in, individuals may experience intense emotions such as anger, frustration, and resentment. This anger can be directed at oneself, others, or even the deceased.
  3. Bargaining: In this stage, individuals may try to negotiate with a higher power or try to make deals to undo the loss. They may also attempt to make sense of the loss by trying to understand the reasons behind it.
  4. Depression: This stage involves a sense of sadness, loneliness, and despair as individuals begin to come to terms with the reality of the loss. They may withdraw from others, experience difficulty sleeping or eating, and lose interest in activities they once enjoyed.
  5. Acceptance: The final stage involves a sense of peace and acceptance of the loss. This does not mean that individuals no longer feel sadness or pain, but rather that they have reached a place of understanding and have integrated the loss into their lives.

It’s important to note that not everyone will experience these stages in the same order, and some people may not experience all of them at all. Additionally, the stages are not meant to be a rigid framework, but rather a general guide to help individuals understand and cope with their grief.

©Linda Turner 2023


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What is Betrayal Trauma

What is a Betrayal Trauma?
What is Betrayal Trauma Theory?

Jennifer J. Freyd, PhD

Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon

Visiting Scholar at Stanford Medical School

Faculty Affiliate of the VMware Women’s Leadership Innovation Lab at Stanford University

Founder, Center for Institutional Courag

Short Definitions

Betrayal Trauma: The phrase “betrayal trauma” can be used to refer to a kind of trauma independent of the reaction to the trauma. From Freyd (2008)Betrayal trauma occurs when the people or institutions on which a person depends for survival significantly violate that person’ s trust or well-being: Childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse perpetrated by a caregiver are examples of betrayal trauma.

Betrayal Trauma Theory: From Sivers, Schooler, & Freyd (2002)A theory that predicts that the degree to which a negative event represents a betrayal by a trusted needed other will influence the way in which that events is processed and remembered.

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Traumatic childhood experiences

Traumatic childhood experiences such as being neglected; suffering physical, sexual, or emotional abuse; or witnessing violence at home are known to health professionals as adverse childhood experiences, or ACEs. They may raise risk for developing health-harming behaviors, such as substance use disorders.A 2020 review published online by JAMA Cardiology found that adults who experienced four or more traumatic childhood events had twice the risk of cardiovascular disease and an early death compared with people who didn’t have any of these painful experiences.