Complex Trauma EMOTIONAL ABUSE PARENTAL ALIENATION Post-traumatic Stress

Q & A – What is Complex trauma?

Complex trauma is a type of trauma that occurs repeatedly or over an extended period of time, often in the context of interpersonal relationships, and can have a profound and lasting impact on an individual’s emotional and psychological wellbeing. Complex trauma can include experiences such as ongoing physical, sexual, or emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to community violence, and repeated relational disruptions or losses.

Unlike a single traumatic event, complex trauma is characterized by the chronic and pervasive nature of the trauma, and can lead to significant challenges in areas such as emotional regulation, interpersonal relationships, and self-identity. This is because complex trauma often occurs during critical periods of development, such as childhood, when an individual’s brain and nervous system are still developing.

Some common symptoms of complex trauma include flashbacks, dissociation, hypervigilance, anxiety, depression, shame, self-harm, substance abuse, and difficulties in trusting and forming healthy relationships.

Effective treatment for complex trauma often involves a comprehensive, trauma-informed approach that addresses the individual’s emotional, cognitive, and physiological needs. This can include therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and somatic experiencing. Additionally, creating a safe and supportive environment and building a sense of connection and trust with the therapist or caregiver can be crucial in supporting the individual’s healing and recovery from complex trauma.

©Linda Turner 2023

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Complex Trauma EMDR NLP PARENTAL ALIENATION Psychologists PTSD RECOVERY SELF HELP THERAPY

Q & A – What is Trauma Typology

Trauma is a complex and multifaceted experience that can take many different forms. Trauma typology is a way of categorizing different types of trauma based on their source, duration, and impact. Here are some common types of trauma:

  1. Acute trauma: This is a single, brief event that causes intense distress, such as a car accident, physical assault, or natural disaster.
  2. Chronic trauma: This is ongoing trauma that occurs repeatedly over a period of time, such as living in a war zone, experiencing ongoing abuse or neglect, or being in a long-term abusive relationship.
  3. Complex trauma: This refers to exposure to multiple or ongoing traumatic events, often beginning in childhood, that have a cumulative impact on an individual’s emotional and psychological wellbeing.
  4. Secondary trauma: This occurs when individuals are exposed to the traumatic experiences of others, such as healthcare providers working with trauma survivors or first responders witnessing traumatic events.
  5. Vicarious trauma: This is a type of secondary trauma that occurs when individuals develop their own trauma-related symptoms as a result of repeatedly hearing about or witnessing traumatic events.
  6. Historical trauma: This refers to the collective trauma experienced by a group of people, such as the intergenerational trauma experienced by Indigenous peoples as a result of colonization and forced assimilation.

It’s important to note that these types of trauma are not mutually exclusive and can overlap in different ways. Understanding the different types of trauma can be helpful in identifying appropriate treatment approaches and supporting individuals in their healing journeys.

©Linda Turner 2023


Brainwashing - Mind Control Coercive Control coercive control EMOTIONAL ABUSE

Q & A – What is dsm-5 v995.51?

DSM-5 V995.51 is a diagnostic code used in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to identify cases of Child Psychological Abuse. This code is used to describe situations where a child is subjected to intentional verbal or symbolic acts that cause harm to their psychological well-being or development.

Child Psychological Abuse is defined in DSM-5 as “non-accidental verbal or symbolic acts by a child’s parent or caregiver that result, or have reasonable potential to result, in significant psychological harm to the child.” These acts can include intimidation, humiliation, and other forms of emotional maltreatment.

DSM-5 V995.51 is used by mental health professionals to diagnose Child Psychological Abuse, which can have serious consequences for the child’s mental health and development. It is important to note that this diagnosis can only be made by a trained mental health professional after a comprehensive assessment and evaluation of the child and their situation. The diagnosis of Child Psychological Abuse can lead to appropriate interventions and treatment to protect the child’s well-being and promote their healthy development.

©Linda Turner 2023

Brainwashing - Mind Control coercive control EMOTIONAL ABUSE Emotional Incest Enmeshment Hostile Aggressive Parenting Pathogenic Parenting Psychological manipulation

Q & A perspecticide

What is perspecticide?

Perspecticide is a neologism used to describe the act of deliberately and systematically destroying or distorting another person’s perspective. It is often used in the context of political or ideological debates, where one party attempts to discredit the other’s point of view by attacking their beliefs or values.

Why do people use perspecticide?

Perspecticide is a term used to describe the intentional destruction of another person’s perspective or point of view. It is often used to describe the actions of people who are trying to control or manipulate another person’s thoughts and feelings. It is a form of psychological abuse and can be used to manipulate, control, and intimidate another person.

Examples of perspecticide in families?

1. Alienation: When one family member is isolated or excluded from the family unit, either through physical or emotional means.

2. Gaslighting: When one family member attempts to manipulate another family member into questioning their own reality or sanity.

3. Emotional Abuse: When one family member uses verbal or emotional abuse to control or manipulate another family member.

4. Financial Abuse: When one family member uses financial control or manipulation to gain power over another family member


Psychedelics May Be Part of U.S. Medicine Sooner Than You Think

It came as a surprise to many when, on Feb. 3, Australian regulators announced that medicines containing the psychedelic substances MDMA and psilocybin can soon be used there to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and treatment-resistant depression, respectively. That decision makes Australia the first country in the world to formally recognize the therapeutic use of psychedelics.

Other countries, including the U.S., may be headed toward a similar outcome, some experts say.

Alienated children Alienation Parental Alienation PA PTSD

Betrayal Trauma

According to the betrayal trauma theory first proposed by Jennifer Freyd of the University of Oregon, the extent of trauma associated with abuse is often linked to the level of perceived betrayal involved. Due to a fear of confrontation with the abuser and the potential loss of the abuser’s support, abuse victims are far more likely to shut out conscious recall of the abuse, even years later. Various other symptoms associated with betrayal trauma include alexithymia (inability to recognize emotions), depressionanxiety, panic attacks, suicidal behavior, anger, and physical health complaints. 

Another common problem linked to the suppression of memories surrounding betrayal trauma is dissociation. Defined by Freyd and her colleagues as, ““the lack of integration of thoughts, feelings, and experiences into the stream of consciousness,” dissociation can range from mild detachment from immediate reality (such as daydreaming) to more severe symptoms including loss of memory, fragmenting of identity, and complex posttraumatic disorder (C-PTSD).

Alienated children Alienation Parental Alienation PA PERSONALITY DISORDERS PTSD

Are Hallucinations Related to Betrayal Trauma Exposure?

Betrayal trauma theory proposes that one response to betrayal may be to keep knowledge of the trauma out of conscious awareness. Although this betrayal blindness may be beneficial for survival while the abuse is ongoing because it helps maintain crucial relationships, this distortion of reality can lead to subsequent psychological and behavioral problems. The current article presents three exploratory studies that examine the associations among exposure to betrayal trauma, dissociation, and hallucinations. The first study (N ϭ 397) examined the associations between exposure to medium and high betrayal trauma and dissociation. The second study (N ϭ 199) examined the associations between exposure to low, medium, and high betrayal trauma and hallucinations. The third study (N ϭ 566) examined the associations between medium and high betrayal child and adolescent/adult sexual abuse and hallucinations. Our results suggest that exposure to betrayal trauma increases the likelihood of both dissociation and hallucinations. These findings provide further evidence that the toxic nature of betrayal in traumas has lasting effects on both cognitive and perceptual processes— dissociation and hallucinations— having implications for therapeutic treatment for individuals who have experienced betrayal traumas and related outcomes.


What trauma does to the brain?

Trauma can cause your brain to remain in a state of hypervigilance, suppressing your memory and impulse control and trapping you in a constant state of strong emotional reactivity.


What is the fastest way to break a trauma bond?

Outside of getting professional support, here are some steps you can take on your own to break free from a trauma bonded relationship:

  1. Educate Yourself. … 
  2. Focus on the Here and Now. … 
  3. Create Some Space. … 
  4. Find Support. … 
  5. Practice Good Self-Care. … 
  6. Make Future Plans. … 
  7. Develop Healthy Relationships. … 
  8. Give Yourself Permission to Heal.

Standards for domestic abuse perpetrator interventions 

Help-seeking – This covers interventions established for people to talk about their behaviour at an early point. They are usually brief interventions that operate as a pathway into other responses. Example: Respect Phoneline.

Early responses – This covers work that is a step before long term behaviour change – it may involve group or one to one work to provide information about domestic abuse, and/or to motivate perpetrators to consider a behaviour change programme. These are usually shorter-term interventions. Example: Change that Lasts Early Awareness Raising (CLEAR)Cautioning and Relationship Abuse (CARA).

Behaviour change work – For those where abuse has become an ongoing pattern, longer term interventions (these standards propose at least 22 weeks) offer the possibility of rethinking and changing how they relate to others. Often combined with risk and needs assessment, individual one to one work where needed, case management and multi- agency processes. Examples: Respect accredited Domestic Abuse Perpetrator Programme’s (DAPPs), Make a Change.

Intensive multi-agency case management – Has emerged to work with ‘high harm, high risk’ cases identified by police on the basis of repeat call outs and/or multiple victims but could also cover other harm and risk levels. The key characteristic here is direct work backed up by a systems response – the coordination of agency responses, it can also include individual one to one work. Examples: Drive, Prevent and Change (PAC), See Change.

Read more: Standards for domestic abuse perpetrator interventions